Benarkah Pendapat Wang Kertas Bukan Ribawi?

rTerdapat satu pendapat yang mengatakan bahawa matawang kertas bukan dianggap sebagai mata wang ribawi kerana ia bukanlah emas dan perak, dan juga tidak lagi disandarkan dengan emas dan perak. Menurut pendapat ini, inilah pendapat yang jelas mengikut mazhab al-Syafi’ie. Ini mazhab Syafi’i, ‘illah  (sebab utama) yang menjadikan emas dan perak itu ribawi ialah kerana ia merupakan mata wang utama yang berasaskan emas dan perak, bahkan mazhab Syafi’i tidak menganggap fulus (wang logam selain emas dan perak) bukan ribawi. Ini memang dijelaskan oleh Imam al-Nawawi sendiri bahawa fulus bukan tertakluk kepada hukum ribawi.  Jadi, benarkah wang kertas boleh disamakan dengan dan fulus?

1. Kesatuan Fiqh Islam Sedunia di dalam Persidangan Ketiga di Amman, Jordan pada tahun 1986, keputusan Fatwa No 21 (9/3), mengesahkan bahawa wang kertas, walaupun tidak diikat dengan emas, sama hukumnya dengan emas, seperti riba, zakat, jual beli salam dan semua sekali hukum yang berkaitan dengan emas. Justeru, ia tidak boleh dijual beli sesama matawang berbeza atau dengan emas, atau dengan perak, secara bertangguh kerana ia tertakluk dengan hukum riba al-nasi’ah.

2. Wang kertas tanpa sandaran emas, dikenali sebagai Nuqud Istilahiyyah atau Nuqud I’tibariyyah, yang mana nilanya hanya berdasarkan kepada pengiktirafan kerajaan terhadapnya. Walaupun wang kertas tidak mempunyai nilai intrinsik yang sama dengan emas, selagi mana ia dianggap bernilai oleh manusia, dan digunakan sebagai mata wang, maka ia tetap haram ditukar dengan emas secara bertangguh atau ansuran. Imam Malik secara tegas mengharamkan jual beli secara bertangguh dengan emas, walaupun dengan kulit kambing, sekiranya kulit itu dijadikan wang. Justeru pembelian emas, tidak sama dengan pembelian pisang goreng, yang mana pisang goreng kita boleh berhutang.

3. Alasan yang diberikan; kenapa hukum emas dan wang kertas mesti sama, padahal emas berubah-ubah.. alasan yang diberikan itu menunjukkan kedangkalannya memahami ‘illah pengharaman. Ini kerana, harga yang berubah-ubah itulah menyebabkan Islam mengharamkan jual beli secara bertangguh. Pada zaman Nabi, harga dinar emas dan dirham perak pun berubah-ubah dan bukan satu kadar. Justeru, Nabi melarang menukar dinar dengan dirham secara bertangguh. Jika tidak dilarang, maka ia akan membuka pintu riba yang lain.

4. Mengapa Wang Kertas Wajar dianggap sama hukum dengan emas dan perak, walaupun dalam kitab-kitab dahulu, terutama mazhab Syafi’i terdahulu tidak menganggap wang selain emas dan perak tidak tertakluk dengan hukum riba dan zakat? Zaman dahulu wang selain emas dan perak, tidak laku untuk urus niaga yang besar, cuma sekadar tempelan sahaja, jual beli kambing, unta, lembu, masyarakat menggunakan dinar dan dirham Mereka tidak menerima fulus, kecuali untuk cukupkan nilai yang kecil.
Huraian berasaskan Qiyas ini memerlukan satu huraian yang panjang, bermula dengan kaedah usul fiqh dan banyak tertakluk dengan perubahan hukum disebabkan perubahan situasi.
Oleh sebab itu hampir semua ulama mazhab Syafi’i sekarang ini tidak mengikut pandangan asal mazhab mereka kerana mereka faham, bahawa wang kertas sekarang, bukan fulus seperti yang dimaksudkan oleh Imam-imam mereka. Yang mempergunakan khilaf ini cuma mempergunakan pandangan yang mereka sendiri tidak atau buat-buat tidak faham.

5. Namun secara ringkasnya, JIKA WANG KERTAS TIDAK TERTAKLUK dengan hukum emas, maka seseorang itu boleh melakukan urus niaga dengan melalui cara-cara berikut:
a. Saya boleh memberi kawan saya hutang RM1000 dan syaratkan dia bayar dengan USD1000 sebulan kemudian, ia tidak menjadi riba.
b. Oleh kerana wang kertas cuma kertas, saya boleh tukar RM100 menggunakan not RM50 x 2 dengan RM200 menggunakan note RM20 x 10 atau RM10 x 20. Ia bukan riba kerana jenis warnanya berbeza.
c. Saya boleh memberi hutang 10gm emas dengan syarat bayar balik RM3000 dalam tempoh dua bulan.
d. Bank konventional tidak tertakluk kepada hukum riba, tidak perlu kepada Islamic banking, kerana yang berlegar cuma wang kertas, bukannya wang emas seperti zaman Nabi atau zaman Britton Wood.
e. Jutawan atau bilionair zaman sekarang tidak perlu membayar zakat, kecuali jika ia menyimpan emas baharu kena zakat.

Kesimpulannya, jika orang yang mengatakan wang kertas tidak sama dengan emas, atau mahu pilih pendapat yang mengatakan ia tidak tertakluk dengan hukum emas, maka dia menafikan fungsi wang kertas sebagai penyimpan nilai, alat untuk bayar hutang yang sah, dan medium perantaraan untuk perniagaan terutama untuk yang berjumlah besar. Pendapat mazhab Syafi’i yang menganggap fulus bukan tertakluk kepada hukum riba dan zakat, kerana fulus zaman itu sekadar sokongan untuk jual beli kecil sahaja.
Kalau dia nak pegang sangat dengan pendapat itu, maka tidak wajar dan tidak sah jual beli dia menggunakan wang kertas sebagai alat pembayaran bisnesnya yang beribu-ribu itu, kerana dia cuma menganggap wang kertas sama seperti fulus zaman dahulu, dan fulus zaman dahulu, seperti catatan oleh al-Maqrizi tidak wajar digunakan untuk urus niaga yang besar !

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  3. Turosi

    Saya tetap berpegang kepada pedapat lama yg jelas. Duit itu dinar dan dirham sbb ada nilai emas pada ain duit,

    Duit kertas skrg (fiat money) tidak bersadarkan kepada emas pun seperti duit/naqdun disisi ulama dahulu.

    Amat jelas dalam hadis emas dan perak sahaja illat/item ribawi bukan nya duit kertas, Kalu duit dinar dirham mmg emas dan perak dan mmg item ribawi sbb mmg emas perak, duit fiat dah trg2 hanya kertas yg diperlakukan dengan nilai angka shj, bukan nilai ain benda seperti dinar dirham.

    Saya heran kenapa tuan tak pegang hadis yg jelas dan kenapa mesti hukumkan duit sama seperti emas? Riba dalam item ribawi satu hal….riba dalam bab hutang piutang pula bab lain pula takde isu pun sbb dua bab berbeza.

    Saya takut jadi golongan pembidaah sbb suka2 mengharamkan apa yg Allah dan rasulnya tidak pernah mengharamkan dan sebaliknya. Wallahuaklam.

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