Tiga Jenis Urus Niaga Kanak-kanak

Bagaimana jual beli anak-anak di sekolah?
Bagaimana kalau dia sedekah kt kawan di sekolah?
Batas Tindakan Kanak-kanak Mumayyiz Belum BalighTahap Mana?

 Ibu bapa yang ada anak kecil wajib baca ini

Apa itu mumayyiz? Rasanya ramai tahu, iaitu kanak-kanak yang telah mampu membezakan buruk dan baik, kotor dan bersih. Kebiasaan umur mumayyiz yang diletakkan oleh majoriti ulama ialah 7 tahun. Jika mereka belum baligh, adakah mereka boleh buat transaksi dan urus niaga?  Penting untuk difahami dan diambil cakna oleh ibu bapa, kanak-kanak belum baligh ada limitasi mereka. Justeru, pastikan sentiasa tanya tentang wang yang mereka belanjakan di sekolah dan sentiasa ingatkan mereka agar tidak ambil hak kawan-kawan mereka walaupun kawan mereka pun pinjamkan atau hadiahkan sebab takut tidak sah akad tersebut.

Menurut Dr Wahbah Zuhayli, tindakan kanak-kanak terbahagi kepada TIGA JENIS UTAMA:
1. Jenis tindakan yang semata-mata menguntungkan ialtu tindakan yang kesannya masuk harta menjadi miliknya tanpa bayaran; sepertl mengambil kayu api di hutan, mengambll rumput, memburu, menerima hadiah dan pemberian, sedekah, waslat dan menerima jaminan hutang. Jenis ini sah dilakukan oleh kanak-kanak yang mumayyiz tanpa perlu mendapat izin atau kelulusan ibu bapa atau wali, sebab tindakan ltu adalah untuk kepentingannya yang sempurna.
2. Tindakan yang semata-mata memudaratkan atau tindakan yang kesannya menyebabkan keluar harta daripada miliknya tanpa bayaran. Contohnya, memberi hibah, sedekah, beri pinjam, menjamin hutang seseorang ataupun menjamin diri seseorang. Tindakan seperti ini adalah menurut majoriti ulama adalah tidak sah dilakukan oleh kanak- kanak yang mumayyiz yang belum baligh. Ia tetap tidak terlaksana biarpun walinya (penjaga /ibu bapa) meluluskan, sebab wali tidak memiliki kuasa melulus tindakan seperti ini kerana ia memberi mudarat kepada harta hak milik kanak-kanak itu. Contohnya kanak-kanak menghadiahkan hadiah menggunakan wang miliknya sendiri kepada seseorang. Jika ibu bapanya benarkan sekali pun, menurut pendapat majoriti ini, ia tetap tidak sah. Ibu bapa dinasihatkan menggunakan wang mereka, bukan wang anak tersebut. Namun begitu,  sebahagian ulama membenarkan jika ia jumlah yang kecil dan mudarat yang mungkin akan datang, mampu ditanggung oleh walinya. Sebaiknya, jika ingin melatih kanak-kanak bersedekah atau memberi hadiah, ibu bapa boleh memberi wang mereka sebagai ganti.
3. Tindakan yang memudarat dan menguntungkan iaitu tindakan yang berkemungkinan untung dan rugi seperti jual beli, menyewa, memberi sewa dan sebagatnya. Kontrak-kontrak ini sah dilakukan oleh kanak-kanak yang mumayyiz tetapi bergantung ke atas keizinan atau kelulusan wali, jika dia masih kecil atau kelulusan dirinya sendiri selepas dia baligh. lni kerana seseorang yang mumaiyiz kurang memahami perkara dengan baik, maka jika diluluskan oleh ibu bapa, ia akan terlaksana dan jika tidak disahkan, maka la terbatal.
Kelulusan oleh wali  adalah menampung kekurangan kelayakan.
Mengapa jenis ketiga ini dibenarkan dengan kelulusan? Kerana jenis ketiga ini ada manfaat kepada kanak-kanak terbabit, berbanding jenis pertama yang jelas manfaat itu sehala sahaja iaitu daripada kanak-kanak tersebut.  Bagaimanapun perlu diambil kira juga situasi yang mana pihak-pihak yang ingin mengambil kesempatan terhadap kanak-kanak dengan pelbagai cara.


Justeru, hati-hati ibu bapa yang ada anak kecil. Latih anak-anak cakna soal duit. Sentiasa ambil berat dan tanya kanak-kanak agar mereka tidak ambil hak orang lain kerana mereka masih belum dapat menilai baik buruk kesan tindakan mereka. 

Comments

  1. Faz

    Assalamualaikum,
    Bagaimana ya jika kanak² umurb7 atau 8 tahun yang berjial beli di koperasi sekolah, membeli barangan yang tidak diarahkan, atau tidak diperlukan tapi membeli semata² kerana rasa tertarik dgn barang tersebut sahaja. Dan membeli tanpa pengetahuan ibu bapa. Adakah berjual beli sebegini sah?

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