Tipu Helah Skim Piramid

Skim Piramid diharamkan di Malaysia berasaskan Akta Jualan Langsung Dan Skim Anti Piramid 1993. Tapi skim-skim binaan firaun masih berleluasa beroperasi menggunakan helah-helah perundangan terutama Multilevel Marketing. Kurangnya tahap penguatkuasaan KPDNKK mungkin menjadi faktor utama begitu banyak produk MLM tanpa lesen wujud di pasaran. Bahkan ada syarikat yang mempunyai lesen AJL (Akta Jualan Langsung) tapi operasi mereka jelas berunsur piramid seperti yang dijelaskan dalam Jadual Seksyen 27A Akta Jualan Langsung Dan Skim Anti Piramid 1993. Ini kerana jika kita baca Akta Jualan Langsung Dan Langsung Dan Skim Anti Piramid 1993, juga syarat-syarat permohonan lesen AJL, sangatlah ketat dan tidak sepatutnya MLM berwajah piramid ini berleluasa.

Skim piramid beroperasi menggunakan duit ahli baru, bayar kepada ahli di atas, dengan harapan dapat lebihan tapi perlu cari ahli di bawah. Said minta duit dari Samad RM500, janjikan bahawa Samad akan dapat pulangan lumayan jika dapat cari ahli. Samad cari Wokyoh dengan cara yang sama, Wokyoh cari Pak Abu dan Pak Abu kena cari Cik Uji dan begitulah sehingga skim mati sendiri. Skim ini semua jelas bahawa ia skim piramid berunsur riba, gharar dan diharamkan undang-undang. Tanpa produk, ia skim piramid, tapi… disihirkan dengan produk, ia MLM! Now you see, now you don’t! Skim Piramid akan hidup menggunakan produk yang di mark-up harga tinggi atau yuran ahli wajib atau pelbagai modus operandi yang lain. Motif utama ialah bonus sponsor (cari ahli).

Anda boleh lihat sendiri beberapa produk seperti:
+ Produk mahal berbanding seumpama dengannya tapi keuntungan yang diperoleh cuma apabila anda menjual produk itu kepada orang lain dan orang lain yang beli juga akan untung jika dia menjual produknya kepada orang lain. Itulah helah utama yang sangat simple. Contohnya Kad Nama berharga RM30 di pasaran biasa. Untuk mengelabui mata masyarakat, skim piramid akan gunakan kad ini dan jual dengan harga RM90. Implikasinya sama sahaja ibarat anda buat skim piramid tanpa produk, setiap orang bayar RM60 kepada upline, kemudian cari downline yang sanggup bayar RM60 dan begitulah seterusnya hingga skim tamat. Tanpa produk, jadi skim piramid, dengan produk, jadi jualan! Semudah itu.
+ Produk kesihatan pelik sel-sel, nano yang kesannya tidak pernah terbukti secara klinikal, tetapi dicanangkan secara berlebihan menggunakan testimoni yang boleh dipertikaikan. Dengan kos yang kita tidak tahu berapa, dijual dengan harga ratusan ringgit bahkan ribuan secara pakej. Contohnya pakej dijual dengan harga RM5400 kemudian ditawarkan bonus sponsorship, bonus pairing dan matching yang tinggi. Contohnya sehingga 40% bonus sponsor sahaja. Ini bererti harga produk sebenar cuma sekitar 5%-10% sahaja, yang bakinya adalah bonus berasaskan tajaan. Untuk lari daripada dianggap sebagai ‘tajaan’, seperti kes di atas, mereka letak harga produk mereka tinggi, jadi tidak timbul isu ‘cari ahli’ tapi jual produk! Ya, sihirnya sama sahaja.
+ Antara ciri skim piramid ialah harga yuran ahli yang besar, bahkan yuran ahli yang tinggi juga dianggap gharar di sisi Syariah. Jadi untuk menghalalkan ‘yuran ahli’, mereka pakejkan ‘yuran ahli’ dengan pelbagai item kononnya untuk website pemasaran, untuk sesi seminar dan kursus tanpa memberi pilihan kepada pelanggan. Ini tidak selaras dengan syarat yang ditetapkan oleh KPDNKK dalam memohon lesen AJL. Sebenarnya ‘yuran ahli’ inilah yang menampung pembayaran bonus sponsorship, bonus matching, bonus pairing, bonus leadership mereka. Tanpa yuran ini, tiada bonus besar, tanpa bonus besar bisnes mereka lingkup! Inilah piramid!
+ Ada skim piramid yang lebih advanced. Mereka memotivasikan ahli dengan gelaran jutawan dan CEO. Lalu langkah pertama untuk menjadi CEO, maka yang join ahli berbondong² daftar perniagaan dengan ROB milikan tunggal (yang patutnya tak ada gelaran CEO pun). Maka urusan syarikat ini dengan ahli secara perundangannya tidak lagi menjadi ‘jualan langsung’ yang perlu patuh dengan pelbagai syarat yang ketat di bawah akta, tapi menjadi jualan biasa antara Business to business (B2B) sedangkan ahli-ahli begitu gigih mencari ahli baru dan begitu yakin bahawa mereka tidak menyertai skim piramid!

Ketahuilah semua bentuk helah ini walaupun selamat daripada penguatkuasaan KPDNKK, ia tidak selamat di sisi penguatkuasaan Allah di hari akhirat. Skim-skim ini berbentuk gharar dan ghusy (usaha mengelirukan orang). Gharar kerana skim piramid cuba mengeksploitasi kehendak pelanggan dengan menjanjikan hasil yang belum tentu diperolehi, serta menipu daya dengan produk-produk yang kononnya berkualiti dengan keuntungan secara melampau. Lebih-lebih lagi jika mengaku pemiliknya bumiputera Islam!

Jangan sangka fiqh muamalat sekadar melihat unsur “aku jual produk” dan “aku setuju beli produk” semata-mata. Jika anda fahami larangan Rasulullah SAW terhadap konsep seperti ba’ habl al-hablah, ba’ talaqqi al-rukban, al-ghusy, al-khiyar dan seumpamanya anda boleh faham bahawa skim piramid yang menggunakan nama MLM amat ditegah oleh Rasulullah SAW. Mereka yang bertitle ustaz pula usahlah begitu literal memahami fiqh muamalat berasaskan kitab, menyalah gunakan fatwa dalam kes yang berbeza untuk menghalalkan skim jualan haram, tanpa melihat kepada konsep pemasaran secara menyeluruh!

Bagi yang terasa menyertai skim ini, jujurlah dengan diri sendiri. Anda tahu bahawa anda ingin keuntungan besar melalui bonus tajaan dan anda tahu bahawa bonus tajaan itu berselindung di sebalik produk dan pelbagai pakej. Anda tahu dan anda buat-buat tidak tahu, demi keuntungan yang cepat berbanding bisnes dan pemasaran secara konvensional yang lebih telus dan ekonomi. Jujurlah dengan diri sendiri. Tidak perlulah cuba menegakkan Menara Pisa di Itali.

Rasulullah SAW bersabda: “Sesiapa yang cuba menipu daya kami, mereka bukan dari kalangan kami” [Sahih Muslim]

Saya berharap pihak KPDNKK bertindak tegas, tanpa memilih bulu, peka dengan aduan bahkan pro aktif lihat iklan-iklan produk MLM di media sosial, walaupun yang sudah ada lesen AJL apatah lagi yang tidak berlesen!

Klik share untuk bantu celikkan masyarakat, terutama mata penguatkuasa KPDNKK.

#multilevel #marketing #mlm #skim #piramid #fiqh #taswiq #harami

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