Kontrak Kontroversi: Bay’ al-Inah

Bay’ al-‘Inah adalah satu bentuk jual beli ‘rekaan’ dengan tujuan untuk memberikan pulangan tetap kepada ‘penjual’.
Oleh kerana Islam mengharamkan mengambil lebihan terhadap ‘pinjaman’, iaitu riba, dan mengharuskan jual beli, iaitu al-bay’, maka diwujudkan satu bentuk kontrak yang dikatakan ia sebagai ‘jual beli’ tetapi implikasinya hampir dengan riba. Ia dianggap helah untuk melakukan riba menggunakan akad jual beli. Sesetengah buku menamakannya sebagai jual beli ribawi (al-bay’ al-ribawi).

Contoh adalah seperti berikut:
Samad ingin meminjam daripada Said RM1000 tetapi Said tidak mahu meminjamkan RM1000 kecuali dibayar balik RM1300. Oleh kerana Islam mengharamkan riba, maka berlakulah dialog seperti di bawah:

Said: Aku jual ayam ini dengan harga RM1300 bayar ansuran RM100 sebulan selama 13 bulan.
Samad: Aku beli ayam ini secara ansuran selama 13 bulan, RM100 sebulan.
Sebaik sahaja Samad memegang ayam itu, maka ayam sudah menjadi milik Samad. Dan Samad berhutang harga ayam selama 13 bulan. Kemudian;
Samad: Aku jual ayam ini secara ‘cash’ kepada kamu dengan harga RM1000.
Said: Aku beli ayam ini secara tunai, dengan harga RM1000.
Said lantas memberikan cash RM1000 kepada Samad, dan Samad dapat RM1000 tapi perlu dibayar harga ayam itu dengan harga RM1300. Dan ayam itu kembali menjadi milik Said.

Jual beli ini menjadi pertikaian hebat antara fuqaha. Majoriti sarjana perbahasan panjang lebar juga apabila dikatakan mazhab Syafi’i mengharuskan jual beli tersebut dan menganggap ia sebagai akad yang sah.

Majoriti sarjana menganggap jual beli ini satu penipuan yang maha besar terhadap Allah, kerana kedua-dua orang itu berniat untuk melaksanakan riba, tetapi mempergunakan keharusan akad jual beli. Bagi mereka, niat tidak menghalal kan cara. Bahkan Ibn Taymiyyah dan Ibn Qayyim daripada mazhab Hanbali, antara sarjana yang begitu lantang mengkritik bentuk jual beli sebegini.

Mazhab Syafi’i, Abu Yusuf daripada mazhab Hanafi, dan mazhab Zahiri pula berpendapat jual beli sebegini, jika berlaku dengan syarat yang cukup, maka kedua-dua kontrak itu dianggap sah dan harus, selagi mana tidak jelas bahawa mereka berniat untuk melakukan ‘helah’ perundangan. Ini kerana niat adalah perkara yang ada dalam hati, dan Syariah tidak boleh memberi hukuman kepada apa yang ada dalam hati, selagi ia tidak dizahirkan.

Imam al-Syafi’i secara jelas mengatakan, “Niat boleh mengharamkan urus niaga mereka berdua, jika terzahir niat mereka untuk melakukan helah, maka akad jual beli itu menjadi rosak (terbatal).”

Kesimpulannya, jika objektif utama Bay’ Inah ini bertujuan untuk hilah riba, maka semua sepakat mengharamkan walaupun ada yang mengatakan akad itu sah, tetapi mereka tetap menganggap berdosa.

Majlis Penasihat Syariah Bank Negara Malaysia menerima kontrak ini sebagai harus, tetapi meletakan beberapa syarat yang ketat. Kontrak ini agak popular digunakan oleh perbankan Islam di Malaysia suatu ketika dalam pembiayaan peribadi, kad kredit, produk-produk Pasaran Wang Antara Bank Secara Islam, Sukuk dan BBA perumahan.

BNM sejak akhir-akhir ini tidak menggalakan perbankan Islam menggunakan kontrak ini terutama dalam produk-produk kewangan Islam yang baru, Kebanyakan digantikan dengan kontrak Bay’ Tawarruq, tetapi masih mencetuskan kontroversi baru. Kontrak Tawarruq dijelaskan dalam posting lain.

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