Pinjaman Yang Menjadi Riba

Kaedah Pinjaman Wang:
عن عباس: كل قرض جر نفعاً فهو الربا
Kata Ibn Abbas: “Setiap pinjaman yang menghasilkan manfaat, itu adalah riba”
[Direkodkan Bayhaqi dalam Sunan al-Kubra]. 

Sesetengah kitab hadis menganggap lafaz itu adalah hadis daripada Rasulullah SAW, namun kebanyakan sandarannya adalah tidak sahih terutama jika disandarkan kepada Nabi. Bagaimanapun, Sheikh Nasiruddin al-Albani menganggap ia sahih jika kata-kata ini disandarkan kepada Ibn ‘Abbas. Dengan ilmu hadis, ia dinamakan sebagai hadis ‘mawquf‘  maka ia dianggap pendapat Ibn ‘Abbas. Pendapat sahabat Nabi dalam isu hukum fiqh, tidak sama dengan hadis yang bersandarkan kepada Nabi.  al-Sheikh Abd Aziz Ibn Baz, mengatakan kalaupun hadis ini tidak sahih, tapi maksudnya boleh diterima, cuma tidak boleh dianggap kata-kata Nabi.

Para ulama’ fiqh pula menjadikan lafaz ini sebagai satu kaedah dalam urusan pinjaman wang.
“Setiap pinjaman yang disyaratkan manfaat, maka terhasillah riba”

Berasaskan kaedah ini, mana-mana pemberian wang pendahuluan, jika dijanjikan bahawa wajib bayar modal balik, maka ia tidak lagi boleh disertai dengan sebarang syarat yang memberi manfaat tambahan kepada pemberi wang pendahuluan tersebut. Wang pendahuluan tersebut sudah dianggap pinjaman kerana dijanjikan modal balik. Dalam hal ini, ulama melarang sebarang bentuk manfaat yang disyaratkan ke atas pinjaman. Contohnya:
1. Said memberi pinjam wang kepada Samad dengan syarat Samad perlu menjual buah rambutan di kebunnya kepada Said. Hampir sepakat sarjana fekah mengharamkannya. Jualan yang disyaratkan kepada Said itu boleh menjadi riba walaupun ia adalah kontrak yang berbeza. Jika tidak disyaratkan, tidak mengapa kerana kedua-dua kontrak itu tiada kaitan.
2. Said berkata kepada Samad: Berikan aku modal RM10000, aku bayar setiap bulan RM200 selamat setahun. Hujung tahun bayar modal. Manfaat bulanan itu adalah riba, tidak kiralah bagaimana cara Said menghasilkan untungnya dengan bisnesnya kepada pelanggan lain.
3. Bank iklankan kepada pelanggan. Jika simpan dalam akaun semasa (yang berasaskan kontrak qard), pelanggan akan dapat cermin mata hitam, Terutama jika akaun semasa itu adalah ‘pinjaman‘ pelanggan kepada bank, cermin mata hitam itu adalah janji bank dan manfaat kepada pelanggan. Itu tetap menjadi riba. Ia tidak riba jika bank tidak berjanji.
4. Ketika Said ingin meminjam daripada Samad, Samad berkata kepada Said, aku pinjamkan kamu RM1000 dengan syarat pada bulan depan kamu pula beri pinjam kepada aku RM1000. Dalam kes ini, kelihatan manfaat lebih kepada Samad, kerana pada asasnya Said tidak berniat untuk memberi pinjam kepada Samad bulan depan. Maka majoriti sarjana fiqh mengharamkannya, tapi ulama moden kebanyakkannya mengharuskan asalkan jumlahnya sama. 

Bagaimanapun jika manfaat itu tidak terhad kepada pemberi pinjam, tetapi kedua-dia belah pihak, maka sebahagian besar sarjana terutama mazhab Maliki mengharuskannya. Contohnya

1. dalam kes ‘permainan kutu’ di kalangan ahli keluarga atau jiran-jiran. Setiap peserta saling memberi pinjam kepada peserta lain dengan syarat setiap perserta akan turut memberi pinjam. Ini dinamakan sebagai ‘Qurud Mutabadilah’. Manfaat yang terhasil adalah untuk semua pihak kerana mereka bersepakat untuk manfaat bersama. Tetapi tidak dinafikan ada juga sarjana yang mengharamkanya dengan menganggap sama dengan kes No 4 di atas.
2. Contoh manfaat bersama yang harus lagi yang majoriti ulama fiqh menerimanya ialah Said berkata kepada Samad, nak pinjam duit boleh tapi dengan syarat, bayar melalui akaun CIMB. Syarat ini walaupun nampak memberi manfaat kepada Samad, tetapi sebenarnya ia turut memberi manfaat kepada Said juga kerana urusan bayaran balik adalah kewajipan Said untuk memastikan wang itu sampai kepada Samad. Manfaat ini diharuskan oleh majoriti sarjana. Dalam fiqh muamalat, ini lebih kurang dengan cara pembayaran yang dikenali sebagai ‘suftajah’. Suftajah ialah Samd memberi hutang kepada Said dan Said membayar hutang kepada wakil samad di negeri lain yang ditentukan oleh Samad. 

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