Hukum Kutu Emas

Soal Jawab | Kutu Emas
(Jawapan ringkas dalam posting panjang, harap bersabar membaca)

Soalan:
Nak tanya pasal kutu emas. Die macam, bayar duit sket sket untuk dapatkan emas. Tp ni berkumpulan la. Ade turn. Bile cukup waktu die die dapat emas tu. Boleh ke? Hadaf die macam ade syubhah plak. Nak kate boleh pun boleh. Sebab die simpan duit macam kutu biase, cumenye last die dapat emas. Camne ye? Ade org tnye sy..tapi sy tak pasti dgan jawapan sy..ape pendapat ustaz?

Jawapan:
Ada dua isu di sini
1. Isu pertama konsep kutu
2. Isu kedua kutu + emas
.
1. Kutu konsepnya dibuat untuk menggalakkan simpanan wang. Setiap orang mencarum setiap bulan, dan ada turn masing-masing. Pada hakikatnya, kontrak kutu ialah kontrak saling pinjam meminjam. Dalam bahasa Arab dipanggil, Qurud Mutabadilah. Maksudnya seseorang itu memberi pinjam, dengan syarat dia akan diberi pinjam pada tempoh tertentu. Oleh kerana wujud syarat “untuk meminjam, perlu diberi pinjam” maka para ulama tidak sepakat dari sudut hukum itu sendiri.
Terdapat sebilangan sarjana kontemporari menganggap hukumnya adalah haram, kerana ia termasuk dalam hukum: pinjaman yang disyaratkan manfaat kepada pemberi pinjam. Mereka yang tidak membenarkan termasuklah Sheikh Abd Aziz bin Baz, Sheikh Dr Abdullah al-Imrani, dan Sheikh Rafiq Yunus al-Misri.
Namun terdapat sebilangan besar juga sarjana membenarkan Qurud Mutabadilah ialah Sheikh Soleh Uthaymin, Dr Nazih Hammad, Dr Abd Jabbar al-Sabhany, Dr Ahmad Muhammad al-Sa’ad. Alasan mereka yang mengharuskan ialah, konsep saling pinjam meminjam ini tidak termasuk dalam pinjaman yang disyaratkan manfaat, kerana manfaaat yang diperoleh bukan untuk satu pihak sahaja tetapi kepada semua yang terlibat. Bahkan bagi mereka ini termasuk dalam tolong menolong ke arah kebaikan. Pandangan yang mengharuskan ini kelihatan lebih relevan dan lebih sahih dan sesuai dengan konsep kutu. Jadi kesimpulannya, hukum kutu lebih kepada harus, walaupun ulama dahulu ada yang mengharamkan.

2. Bagaimana pula jika yang dijanjikan adalah emas, dan bukan wang tunai? Isu ini perlu diperhalusi kerana ia melibatkan dua item ribawi yang berlainan jenis. Emas vs Wang. Maka disini beberapa situasi diberikan:
i. Situasi Pertama: Kita sudah faham, apa yang berlaku dalam kutu ialah al-Qard atau pinjaman wang. Jika seseorang itu meminjam wang, pada asasnya mereka yang meminjam dan memberi pinjam tidak boleh bersepakat untuk membayar dalam mata wang yang lain, atau emas, tetapi perlu dilunaskan menggunakan mata wang yang sama. Oleh itu, jika sudah ada perjanjian untuk mengikat hutang itu hanya dibayar dengan emas (khasnya jenis gold bar – bukan perhiasan), maka ia termasuk dalam kategori riba al-nasi’ah, atau sekurang-kurangnya telah membuka pintu kepada al-nasi’ah. Jika emas perhiasan, kami memilih bahawa ia bukan barangan ribawi jadi ia tak termasuk dalam hukum nasi’ah.
ii. Situasi Kedua: Jika setiap kali masuk turn seseorang ahli kutu, maka ahli kutu diberi pilihan untuk sama ada mendapat Ringgit atau emas yang dibeli dengan ringgit tersebut pada harga semasa, ia adalah harus. Kerana serahan belian emas menggunakan wang RM yang diperolehi mengikut turn itu secara cash on delivery menjadikan ia akad yang sah dan harus. Oleh itu dinasihatkan penganjur kutu emas, beri opsyen pada setiap giliran sama ada mahu emas atau wang, supaya kita dapat menjauhi riba dan syubhah riba seboleh mungkin.
iii. Situasi Ketiga: Jika emas yang dijanjikan itu barang kemas, bukan jongkong emas, maka mengikut fatwa parameter jual bel emas Malaysia, ia adalah harus kerana barang kemas mengikut parameter JAKIM, tidak termasuk dalam kategori ribawi, berdasarkan pandangan Ibn Tayimiyyah dan Ibn Qayyim daripada mazhab Hanbali. Walaupun begitu, majoriti ulama silam tetap menganggap emas barang kemas adalah ribawi, termasuklah ulama Saudi seperti Sheikh Abd Aziz Ben Baz dan Fatwa Lajnah Daimah Saudi. 


Kesimpulan:
Pada pandangan kami, kepada para penganjur kutu emas, mereka tidak boleh mewajibkan setiap ahli menerima emas pada setiap giliran mereka, walaupun ikut harga semasa, tetapi beri opsyen kepada peserta, Opsyen utama tentulah dapat wang cash seperti mana mereka bayar setiap bulan, dan opsyen kedua, wang cash itu digunakan untuk membeli emas oleh pihak peserta secara cash on delivery (spot transaction). Ini untuk mengelakkan diri daripada terjebak dengan riba al-nasi’ah. Jadikan ia sama seperti kutu biasa, tetapi produk emas hanya sekadar opsyen belian setelah mereka menerima cash.

Perlu diingatkan juga bahawa program kutu emas tidak boleh dijalankan oleh mana-mana perniagaan atau entiti perniagaan kerana ia salah di sisi undang-undang Malaysia. Kalau setakat rakan sepejabat, atau adik beradik atau kejiranan, itu tidak mengapa. Pastikan semua ahli kena antara satu sama lain.

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